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Different Types of Springs for Car

Views:1060 Author:Site Editor Publish Time:2023-07-27 10:10:23 Orgin:Site

In vehicular engineering, an assortment of springs finds use within the domain of car suspensions. These spring varieties, designed to serve as essential components in the suspension system, play a pivotal role in streamlining support, shock absorption, and vehicle stability. This blog shall delve into an exposition of the diverse types of springs found within automotive technology.


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Coil Springs

Steel coil springs are standard in trucks and older motor vehicles. Coil springs resemble long metal strips bent to allow ample rebound. They may be layered based on the load size the car is meant to carry. As much as they provide a wide variety of spring rates, you will find them easily accommodating in all confined spaces.

And so, compared to other car springs, they weigh only half of what you would need for doing the same job. You may find coil springs mainly toward the rear of the vehicle. They offer a ride with sufficient bounce; therefore, they aren't as commonly used in new or small cars.

These springs can store two times the energy per unit volume in contrast to leaf springs. The advantage is their greater control for acceleration, stopping, and cornering. Coil springs are a feature of the spring seats hooked to your rear axles. The spring seats fitted into the frame serve to compress springs against them.


Torsion Spring

Torsion springs are helically wound springs with the ability to deflect torque rotationally. These springs express their mechanical energy via the property of elasticity, with every spring action happening after it gets twisted rather than pulled.

These springs may also be subject to bending stress. They transmit the torque through the entire length of the wounding spring material. Depending on the level of deflection, the spring's length increases, and the diameter reduces in action.

The legs on torsion springs are hooked to separate components to achieve a level of wounding flexibility that optimizes angular torque on the spring's axis. The springs generate enough force to hold parts in place and store and release sizable mechanical energy upon push or pull.


Torsion springs are steel made and typically must be stiff. Common types include hard-drawn steel, spring steel, music wire, and stainless steel torsion springs for heavy-duty car usage, although plastic types may be available for light use.

You can buy torsion springs metric or imperial standards. Closely-wound torsion springs are the most common, but depending on specific applications, these springs may have more spacing or pitch between the coils, especially in areas of greater friction.

Torsion springs wind direction can either be clockwise or counter-clockwise. And load application must be in the direction of the winding. Torsion springs are commonly used in a car's independent suspension system. The bar gets connected to the frame with the other end hooked to the wheel arm. When the car hits a bump, the wheel arm vibrates, and the springs absorb the vibration for a smoother ride.


Leaf Spring

Leaf springs have several steel plate leaves of diverse diameters. A bolt clamps the leaves at the center and sides, keeping them in position.  The primary leaf is usually longer, having curved ends called spring eyes. A shackle connects the spring eye to the frame, and U-bolt links the spring center to the axle. The following are the different types of leaf springs.


Semi-elliptical Spring


A semi-elliptical spring, also going by the name half-elliptical spring, is a suspension component commonly utilized in vehicles that derives its name from its shape, which resembles a half ellipse. These springs have an elongated, curved steel strip attached to the chassis or frame of the vehicle at its midpoint.


Given that the ends are connected to the axle or suspension system, the semi-elliptical spring design provides sufficient support and flexibility for maximum shock absorption from the road surface. The curved shape means that it can compress and expand as the vehicle encounters bumps on the road, ensuring a smoother ride and enhanced stability.


Quarter-elliptical Spring


Another type of leaf spring, the quarter-elliptical spring, is a suspension spring used in vehicles and is characterized by its quarter-ellipse shape. It has a shorter length than the semi-elliptical spring, but like the latter, it features a curved steel strip installed between the chassis and the axle.


This spring, by the even distribution of the weight of the vehicle, minimizes excessive body movement while traversing uneven terrain. It provides a balance between stiffness and flexibility to ensure improved handling and ride comfort and stability.


Three-quarter Elliptical Spring


This three-quarter elliptical spring is in so many ways similar to both the semi-elliptical and quarter-elliptical springs when it comes to anatomy and performance. From its moniker, the three-quarter elliptical spring looks like three-quarters of an ellipse, which means it's longer than the quarter-elliptical spring while being shorter than the semi-elliptical spring.


This spring finds use in specific vehicle suspension systems where there is a need to achieve particular ride characteristics. By balancing the quarter-elliptical spring's stiffness and the semi-elliptical spring's flexibility, the three-quarter elliptical spring is perfect for cases where you must improve suspension performance for controlled and comfortable driving experiences.


Air Springs


The air spring is a component of suspension systems. They have diverse configurations and installation requirements because air suspension systems vary based on car make and model, even though they operate on a shared principle.


When installing the air spring, remove the metal spring and insert an airbag or air spring to fit in the place of the default factory-made spring. The suspension adjusts up and down after air pressure gets supplied to the airbag.


The anatomy of an air spring is simple; just flexible bellows made of textile-strengthened rubber and containing the air that works to support the load of the vehicle. Upon the air pressure inflating the bellows, the chassis gets raised up above the axle. 


Air spring is commonly used on many heavy trucks and trailers. They are soft when the car is not yet loaded, but their stiffness increases when you increase the load by increasing air pressure in the bellows.


These springs provide optimal riding comfort when hauling heavy loads, and the vehicle's height is maintained by air pressure in the chambers in the event of load variations. The springs absorb road shock to enhance vehicle stability and are designed to increase safe payload capacity and ride comfort.



Air Springs Come in Two Types.


Double-convoluted: These springs offer higher load capacities and have a progressive spring rate and shorter stroke. You will commonly find them in front suspensions with the spring lying in-board of the load point.


Tapered sleeve: These air springs feature a rolling sleeve with a small diameter and a line spring rate with a longer stroke. You will find them in back-end suspensions because of their fewer load capacity and more travel needs.


When dealing with all air spring suspensions, you will need tools for adjusting air pressure. Engine-driven or electric air compressors can be used in these systems to occasionally fill the on-board air receiver tank, which stores compressed air.


Rubber Springs


Rubber can store more energy in every unit mass than other spring materials. Therefore large amounts of weight savings are possible with rubber suspension in cars. Rubber springs on compression or shear can serve as the primary suspension spring or be installed with metal springs to enhance the suspension performance characteristics. 


Rubber 'bump' stops bolster the suspension spring against excessive deflection. The spring sits between the top link and the frame of the suspension system. The spring's deflection reduces significantly when it's connected close to the link pivot without impacting wheel movement.


Their installation and configuration of rubber springs afford them a rising-rate characteristic for soft small wheel movements and stiffer for increased deflections.

The energy released from a car's rubber spring after each deflection is significantly less than what was imparted to it. The internal energy loss called hysteresis makes it possible to use lower-duty dampers.


Rubber spring suspensions feature bonded layers of rubber blocks reinforced with steel plates within which the rubber gets subjected to compressive and shear forces. The rubber springs sit between the chassis spring cradle and a load transfer member shaped as a wedge and pivoted centrally.


A box-sectioned balancing beam helps to equalize the load between the axles when mounted to the load transfer member centrally. Reaction from brake torque is neutralized by upper torque arms linked between the axles and chassis.


A progressive rising rate comes into play when rubber springs are positioned on either side of the chassis due to variations of stress imparted on the rubber. Rubber spring suspensions are ideal for heavy carrier tankers, tandem trailers, and rigid trucks with tandem axles.


Helper Springs


Helper springs are suspension enhancement tools designed to support and help different types of original equipment suspension. Helper springs can either be steel springs or pneumatic springs. They help with load leveling when hauling heavy loads. Loads, including gear, people, or tools for work and industrial operations, can cause the vehicle to sag at the rear, but helper springs can help to balance things out.


Helper springs are an essential safety component, given how an overloaded vehicle is a road hazard. Excessive weight can drastically impact your vehicle's braking and handling. However, helper springs guarantee that your vehicle's suspension, handling, and braking work well when carrying heavy loads. These springs can reduce maintenance costs.


When vehicle drivers haul uneven or excessive load capacities, critical car components are subjected to wear and tear faster. An overworked suspension, worn tires, and deteriorated brake pads are some of the consequences, but helper springs can help to forestall this and hence slash maintenance costs.




In conclusion, the wide range of springs used in car suspensions unveils a rich tapestry of engineering novelty and meticulous craftsmanship worldwide. From the elegant curvature of the coil spring to the stalwart robustness of the semi-elliptical spring, each vehicular spring type plays a pivotal role in shaping the driving experience, safety, comfort, and stability.


At GL Metal, we provide diverse spring types of varying characteristics for different car applications. Our engineers and machinists have designed them with extensively perfected features to impact vehicular dynamics positively. Our springs embrace the delicate balance between flexibility and resilience, seamlessly adapting to ever-changing road contours for a lower cost of ownership.